by Kelsey Nihezagirwe
Have your most embarrassing memories kept you from having a well-deserved night of sleep? Well don’t worry you’re not alone. Many are haunted to this day of the things they have done in their childhoods. Whether it be that time you tripped on absolutely nothing while walking in front of your crush, or that time a teacher told you to answer a question and you answered wrong in front of the whole class. Those things, although not trivial, can at times stay with a person and affect them. This is one of the only times when forgetting is useful.
Memories are triggered by feelings, sensations, and senses. When one recalls a bad memory, it is the brain warning you in case if something similar would happen. First of all, remembering is a dynamic system where one needs to piece together. This is good in the aspect that recalling can strengthen the act of recalling. However, this makes the memories vulnerable to alterations. Everytime you remember a memory there is a chance of altering it in your favor. This can work in bad memories because if you have a bad experience you might alter it to make it look worse that it actually was. This is when forgetting comes in clutch. It may seem easy to forget certain memories when you want to keep them. However, forgetting on command is much harder than trying to keep a memory.
In an experiment lead by Tracy Wang a postdoctoral psychology fellow at the university of Texas at Austin, a group of participants looked at 200 images. The images consisted of faces, which they were told to identify as male or female, and scenery which they were told to identify as indoors or outdoors. The participants were placed in a brain scanning machine to see their brain activity in the ventral temporal cortex and sensory cortex. Once they had seen all of the images and been told to remember and forget certain images, they were later tested. The test consisted of a series of images they saw and some they did not see. They were told to circle which they had seen and how confident they were in their answers. In the experiment, having too little or too much brain activity when trying to erase a memory is considered a failed attempt at forgetting. It was found that the best way to forget is to remember it a little and letting it fade on its own accord. Forcing yourself to forget something will not make it easier to forget. It will just make you remember it more. One can help themselves slowly forget by using the phrases “Think More” or “Think Less”. This method is not guaranteed to make you forget but sometimes thinking less about something or thinking more to come to terms with it might be what you need. Especially when you are being haunted in the middle of the night by unwanted memories.
Link to article: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/22/health/memory-forgetting-psychology.html?searchResultPosition=7
Carey, B. (2019, March 22). Can We Get Better at Forgetting? Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/22/health/memory-forgetting-psychology.html?searchResultPosition=7
Link to photo: https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2012/jan/20/change-life-art-of-forgetting
Subconsciously recalling unwanted memories of tragic events or embarrassing moments is one of the downfalls of having an extremely active mind, but, neuroscientists have discovered a lead to a way that we can deliberately reduce the frequency and severity for random recallings of unwanted memories.
In our everyday lives, our mind goes through the process of recalling memories numerous times. Recalling memory happens when your brain activates a biochemical process that solidifies and reorganizes memory that has been stored from past times. Often times this recalling leads us into trouble. For example, perhaps you’ve been in a terrible car accident and everytime you see the location of that accident or a car that looks like the one you collided with, your mind replays the event over and over in your head. Sometimes, we find ourselves just not wanting to remember certain things like that so we don’t have to relive the pain forever.
Recently, Tracy Wang, a postdoctoral psychology fellow at the University of Texas led a study that began to explore the possibility of training our mind to intentionally forget certain memories. To test the likelihood of being able to do so, 24 people of a random selection were put to the test. They were placed in a brain-imaging machine and shown 200 images of faces and scenes and were asked to identify them as male vs. female and outside vs. inside for a short period of time before they were then asked to either remember or forget the image before them. After all the images had been shown they were given a test with both images that were shown before and some that weren’t and asked to rate how confident they were at having seen them. To get data, they looked at the brain-imaging machines photos and focused on the ventral temporal cortex and sensory cortex, both of which become very active when a person focuses their attention on simple images like the ones shown.
Ultimately, the subjects recalled 50-60% of the images they saw and were asked to remember and successfully forgot 40% of the images they were asked to forget. The brain scans showed that when the subject’s mind was particularly active or inactive, it corresponded with a failed attempt to forget an image telling us that a medium level of attention on a certain thought is ideal for deliberately forgetting unwanted memories, not too little or too much. It is important to note that the study was not entirely conclusive enough to say that it is possible to regularly be able to intentionally forget but that as Lili Sahakyan, a professor of psychology at University of Illinois, says: “memories have to be strengthened before they can be weakened,” but that it is possible to dim memories by substitution, a process used by many therapists that works by linking unwanted memories to other thoughts in order to avoid the random recallings and flashbacks that often lead to cases of PTSD. This study provides the conclusion that “to intentionally forget is to remember differently, on purpose,” and suggests a possibility that deliberately forgetting memories is an activity that we could potentially train our minds to do after more research has been done.
Article: Carey, B. (2019, March 22). Can We Get Better at Forgetting? Retrieved May 20, 2019, from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/22/health/memory-forgetting-psychology.html?rref=collection/timestopic/PsychologandPsychologists&action=click&contentCollection=health®ion=stream&module=stream_unit&version=latest&contentPlacement=29&pgtype=collection&login=email&auth=login-email
Ms. Carrigan's Psych Class
We have been reading articles about psychological studies to inform the way we live our lives. Please explore, and we hope you learn a bit about the psychology in your life!